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Learning and development (L&D) should be essential to your business’s corporate culture. But do you know what type of training and development your employees need? A training needs analysis will help you pinpoint performance gaps and improve your approach to training new and long-time staff.

This guide to training needs analysis covers the why and the how. You’ll find out why it’s essential to understand the training needs of your staff and get a step-by-step guide for discovering and attending to these needs. 

What Is a Training Needs Analysis?

Training Needs Analysis

A training needs analysis is the process your business uses to identify needs and gaps in its employee’s current skills and knowledge. You’ll use a training needs analysis to assess how well-trained your staff are on an individual and organisational level. 

You may already have a training programme or onboarding document in place. Still, these could need updating or reorienting to fit better your business’s needs and the expectations you have of your team. Training needs analysis will help you spot problems and improve your training process as a whole. 

Benefits of a Training Needs Analysis

  • Identify skill gaps: Training needs analyses help you pinpoint areas where employees lack the skills or knowledge required to perform their jobs effectively. This allows you to target your training programme at gaps. 
  • Align your training with your goals: Aligning training initiatives with organisational objectives means that any training investments contribute directly to the achievement of your strategic goals and priorities. Integrating OKRs and KPIs into your training strategy ensures that these objectives are quantifiable and closely monitored, enhancing accountability and effectiveness in meeting business targets.
  • Improve performance and productivity: Addressing identified skill gaps through targeted training programs will inevitably lead to improved employee performance and productivity since your staff will have the proper tools and training for their jobs.
  • Optimise resource allocation: Training needs analysis helps you allocate your training resources more effectively by focusing on areas of greatest need.
  • Talent development and retention: Investing in employee development through targeted training programs helps attract and retain top talent since it demonstrates a commitment to their professional growth and career advancement.
  • Professional development plan: Incorporating a professional development plan into these initiatives ensures that training is tailored to meet the long-term career goals of each employee, further enhancing retention and satisfaction.
  • Measurable impact: A training needs analysis will allow your business to evaluate the effectiveness of training initiatives by establishing clear performance metrics and benchmarks. This also helps you measure the return on investment (ROI) of their training efforts.

Training Needs Analysis: A Step-by-Step Guide

  1. Identify and Categorise Types of Training Needs
Categorise Types of Training Needs

There are different types of training needs your staff will have and it’s worth spending time separating these into 1) knowledge, 2) skills, and 3) abilities


Knowledge refers to factual information, concepts, principles, or theories that individuals must understand to perform their jobs effectively.

Examples of knowledge training needs:

  • Industry knowledge: Understanding industry trends and regulations as well as best practices relevant to your organisation’s sector.
  • Product knowledge: Familiarity with the features and benefits of your products or services.
  • Procedural knowledge: Knowing how to use specific software or processes required to complete job tasks, such as knowing how to complete operational audits
  • Policy and compliance knowledge: Awareness of any company policies and procedures and legal regulations in place that govern workplace safety and compliance.


Skills represent the ability to perform specific tasks or activities competently, often acquired through practice and experience.

Examples of skills training needs:

  • Communication skills: Effective verbal and written communication skills for interacting with colleagues and clients or customers.
  • Technical skills: Proficiency in using specialised equipment or software relevant to the job role.
  • Problem-solving skills: Analytical and logical skills to identify and address complex problems or challenges.
  • Leadership skills: Ability to lead and inspire others to achieve organisational goals.
  • Teamwork skills: Collaboration and conflict resolution along with the broader interpersonal skills that are necessary for working effectively within a team.


Abilities refer to the traits or characteristics that influence an employee’s capacity to perform tasks or succeed in a given role.

Examples of abilities training needs:

  • Critical thinking: The capacity to analyse information and make informed decisions based on logic and reasoning.
  • Adaptability: Flexibility and openness to change and a willingness to learn new skills.
  • Emotional intelligence: Awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others.
  • Creativity: The ability to generate innovative ideas or approaches to solve problems or improve processes.
  • Resilience: How well you can bounce back from setbacks and cope with stress in challenging situations.

While there may be some overlap between different types of training needs, try as much as possible to categorise the different skills and abilities your employees need. That way, you can target your learning and development programmes more effectively.

  1. Define Individual vs. Team vs. Organisational Training Needs
Individual vs. Team vs. Organisational Training Needs

There are typically three different types of roles to be analysed: individuals, teams, and the organisation as a whole. Identifying and defining these will help you perfect the individual focuses as well as the overall training needs analysis.


Individual analysis focuses on assessing the training needs of individual employees based on their specific roles and responsibilities (as well as performance gaps).

Examples of individual training needs analysis:

  • Sales representatives: Assessing the training needs of sales representatives is usually to improve their product or service knowledge and sales techniques along with their customer relationship skills.
  • Customer service agents: Identifying areas for training and development for customer service agents typically covers communication skills and conflict resolution. It should also include any required software knowledge and product/service expertise.
  • Software developers: Analysing the technical skills and knowledge gaps of software developers will be aimed at enhancing their proficiency in programming languages and software development methodologies as well as teamwork and problem-solving. 


Team analysis involves examining the collective training requirements of teams or departments within your business. You’ll focus on improving collaboration and productivity amongst team members, with virtual team building exercises playing a vital role in fostering a cohesive work environment, even remotely. 

Integrating team chat apps can significantly enhance real-time communication and streamline collaborative processes, making them a crucial aspect of team-based training initiatives.

Examples of team training needs analysis:

  • Project team: Assessing the training needs of a project team to better project management skills and teamwork.
  • Sales team: Identifying training opportunities for a sales team to improve sales strategies and problem-solving abilities as well as their overall product knowledge sharing.
  • Customer support team: Analysing the training needs of a customer support team to enhance customer service skills and problem-solving abilities.


Organisational analysis examines broader organisational goals and performance gaps to identify training needs that affect the entire organisation.

In this context, recruiting strategies also play a crucial role. Effective recruiting strategies ensure that the organisation attracts candidates with the necessary skills and potential for development, which aligns with identified training needs and strategic goals. By integrating recruiting strategies into your training needs analysis, you can ensure a better match between new hires’ skills and organisational requirements.

Examples of organisational training needs analysis:

  • Strategic goals alignment: Assessing how well employee skills and competencies, as well as those of external partners like a PEO, align with the organisation’s objectives and identify areas for skill development.
  • Culture change initiatives: Identifying training needs related to corporate culture change efforts, such as diversity and inclusion training or leadership development programmes.
  • Skill gaps assessment: Analysing organisational performance data to identify common skill gaps across departments or functional areas and designing training programs to address these gaps.
  1. Gather Data Using a Range of Tools
Range of Tools

Next, it’s time to gather data so you can understand what knowledge and skills your staff have and what’s lacking. You should use a range of tools and sources so you can get a comprehensive understanding of the learning requirements within your business. 

  • Surveys: Design and distribute surveys to employees and managers to gather feedback on training needs and perceived gaps. Use a mix of multiple-choice or numbered (e.g. how confident are you in your role on a scale of 1-10) and open-ended questions (e.g. what is the meaning of presenteeism?) to collect quantitative and qualitative data.
  • Interviews: Conduct structured or semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts and supervisors to gain insights into specific training requirements. Ask probing questions that explore challenges and skill gaps as well as development opportunities.
  • Task Management App: Implement a task management app to track and analyse ongoing training tasks and deadlines, ensuring that all training activities are aligned and monitored effectively.
  • Focus groups: Organise focus group sessions with small groups of employees to facilitate discussions and brainstorming on training ideas. Encourage participants to share their experiences and perspectives on improving training.
  • Observation: Observe employees in their work environment to identify skill deficiencies and performance gaps as well as opportunities for improvement. Take note of behaviours and tasks performed to inform your training needs assessment.
  • Performance evaluations: Review performance appraisal data and KPIs to identify trends and patterns related to training needs. Analyse performance ratings, competency assessments, and feedback from supervisors to pinpoint areas for development.
  • Job analyses: Conduct job analyses to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for different roles within your company. Use job descriptions and create competency frameworks to assess training requirements.
  1. Assess Performance Gaps

You have your data in hand. Now it’s time to assess performance gaps. This involves comparing current performance levels with the desired performance standards or expectations to identify areas for improvement. Let’s break down how to do this:

  • Clearly define performance expectations, with any goals and standards in place, for each job role or task. These expectations should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).
  • Compare actual vs. desired performance, using the performance data collected above against the benchmarks you have in place. That way, you can identify areas where performance falls short of expectations or where improvements are needed.
  • Use performance metrics and indicators to quantify performance gaps. Analyse key performance indicators (KPIs) relevant to each job role or task to assess performance levels objectively.
  • Solicit feedback from supervisors and colleagues as well as customers and stakeholders to gain insights into performance strengths and weaknesses. Consider observations and qualitative feedback alongside quantitative data.
  • Identify the root causes of performance gaps, such as skill deficiencies or resource constraints constraint. Consider factors like attendance and management too and make use of data from attendance tracking tools or employee feedback to better understand these. 
  • Prioritise performance gaps based on their impact on organisational goals or critical business processes. Focus on addressing high-priority gaps first.
  • Set specific targets for performance improvement based on the identified gaps. Define measurable goals and milestones to track progress over time.
  1. Rebuild Your Training Programme 
Rebuild Your Training Programme

Finally, you must use the findings of the training needs analysis to inform the design and development of training programmes. Here are some tips on how to do so:

  • Tailor training content to address specific skill deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified during the analysis. You should develop modules and training materials as well as easily accessible resources, such as an employee handbook, that directly target areas for improvement.
  • Choose appropriate training methods and delivery formats that are most suitable for addressing the target audience’s identified training needs and learning preferences. You can incorporate a mix of instructor-led training, e-learning modules, and on-the-job training as needed.
  • Integrate real-world scenarios and case studies relevant to employees’ job roles and responsibilities into the training program. This helps learners understand how to apply newly acquired knowledge and skills in their day-to-day tasks.
  • Include interactive activities and simulations that allow employees to practise and apply their learning in a safe and supportive environment. 
  • Design the training program to support ongoing learning and skill development beyond the initial training sessions. Provide access to online courses and work communities to encourage continuous learning and self-improvement.
  • Implement mechanisms to gather feedback from participants during and after the training program. You can use this feedback to assess the effectiveness of the training interventions and make necessary adjustments to improve future sessions.

Key Takeaways

A robust training needs analysis helps you create tailored and effective training programs that bridge performance gaps and foster employee engagement and satisfaction. 

Yet engagement is not just a byproduct of training but rather an essential ingredient for its success. When employees feel valued and invested in their development, they are more likely to actively participate in training activities and apply newfound knowledge and skills to their roles.

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Nilesh Jha